Gradual Release of Responsibility

Teachers provide scaffolding to help students develop higher-level critical and creative thinking and deeper understanding. As they support their learners, teachers believe that all students want to learn, and they provide a learning environment in which all students can gradually take on responsibility for their own learning (Manitoba Education, Citizenship and Youth, Independent Together, 2003).

Teachers enable this learning environment by
  • becoming facilitators of learning
  • providing real choices that accommodate a range of learning styles, recognizing that curricular outcomes can be met in a variety of ways
  • inviting students to choose what they will do to demonstrate their learning, and to identify the steps they will take to accomplish the task
  • emphasizing intrinsic motivation rather than external rewards

Teachers help students move across the Developmental Continuum for Literacy with ICT by following Pearson and Gallagher’s “Gradual Release of Responsibility” Model of Explicit Instruction (a diagram of this model may be viewed at the URL below, Figure 5).
  • Modelling: Teachers model learning behaviours such as building criteria, selfassessment, seeking feedback, making adjustments, goal setting, and reflection.
  • Sharing: Teachers share exemplars of quality work and teach students to identify quality samples of their own work.
  • Guiding: Students and teachers assume joint responsibility through guided practice.
  • Independent: Students practise, demonstrate, and apply learning behaviours that help them become self-directed learners.

Literacy with ICT Across the Curriculum. Section 2: Supporting Principles.

Resources for Gradual Release of Responsibility

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